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LGBTQ2 her/his story July 1

BCE to The Suffragettes

1663, UK – English politician Samuel Pepys writes in his diary of his displeasure at how common sodomy had become in the country’s military.

1828, UK – The Buggery Act is repealed then reenacted, criminalizing sodomy.

07-01-1913 – 04-04-1995 Jo Sinclair (b. Ruth Seid) – Born in Brooklyn, New York. She was an American lesbian novelist. Publishing only four novels in her career, she was much more at 

Jo Sinclair

home with the short story, many of which have appeared in anthologies. She also produced a volume of memoirs. Many of Sinclair’s works explore the difficulties of being Jewish and she often used that knowledge of antisemitism as a touchstone for examining other prejudices. Considered her best work, The Changelings (1955) compares the history of Jewish oppression with the history of slavery and contemporary discrimination against African-Americas in the United States. Her work also explored family relations, repression of women’s sexual energy, and sexual orientation. She died of cancer on July 4th, 1995. She was survived by her partner Joan Soffer.

1919, Germany – In Berlin, Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld (May 14,1868 – May 14, 1935 founds the Institute for Sexual Science. It includes a department to advise men arrested for violation of Paragraph 175, the German sodomy law. Hirschfeld was a German Jewish physician and sexologist educated primarily in Germany; he based his practice in Berlin-Charlottenburg. An outspoken advocate for sexual minorities, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee. Historian Dustin Goltz characterized this group as having carried out “the first advocacy for homosexual and transgender rights“.

07-01-1925 – 03-27-2011 Farley Granger – Born in San Jose, California. He was an American actor, best known for his two roles in Alfred Hitchcock’s films, Rope (1948) and 

Strangers on a Train (1951). He also appeared on stage and television. While in the Navy during WWII, he became aware that he was attracted to both men and women. It was while he was stationed in Honolulu that Granger had his first sexual experiences, one with a woman and the other with a Naval officer, both on the same night. In his memoir, he stated, “I finally came to the conclusion that for me, everything I had done that night was as natural and as good as it felt…I never have felt the need to belong to any exclusive, self-defining, or special group…I was never ashamed, and I never felt the need to explain or apologize for my relationships to anyone…I have loved men. I have loved women. He had a long affair with Shelly Winters. From 1959 to 2008, he was with Robert Calhoun. (Robert Calhoun died in 2008.)

1928 – The lesbian novel The Well of Loneliness by the British author Radclyffe Hall(August 12, 1880 – October 7, 1943) was published on this date in the United States and sold an initial 20,000 copies. It follows the life of Stephen Gordon, an Englishwoman from an upper-class family whose “sexual inversion” (homosexuality) is apparent from an early age. She finds love with Mary Llewellyn, whom she meets while serving as an ambulance driver in World War I, but their happiness together is marred by social isolation and rejection, which Hall depicts as typically suffered by “inverts” with predictably debilitating effects. The novel portrays inversion as a natural, God-given state and makes an explicit plea: “Give us also the right to our existence.” In 1915, Hall fell in love with Una Troubridge(1887–1963), a sculptor with whom she lived at 37 Holland Street, Kensington, LondonThe relationship would last until Hall’s death. In 1934 Hall fell in love with Russian émigré Evguenia Souline and embarked upon a long-term affair with her, which Troubridge painfully tolerated.

The Friends of Dorothy Era and The Hayes Code

1934: The Hays Code, a self-regulatory code of movie ethics, discouraging filmmakers from including frank depictions of sex and sexuality instituted by the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), becomes mandatory.  The code is nicknamed after the head of the MPPDA, former Republican National Committee chairman Will H. Hays. Among its provisions-“Pictures shall not infer that low forms of sex relationships are the accepted or common thing” and “Sex perversion or any inference to it is forbidden on the screen.”

Blogger Nina Notes: the Code also restricted Heterosexual women characters from having professions in movies and limited women’s roles to victims

1943 – Willem Arondeus (August 22, 1894 – July 1, 1943) dies. He was a Dutch artist and author who joined the Dutch anti-Nazi resistance movement during World War II. He participated in the bombing of the Amsterdam public records office to hinder the Nazi German effort to identify Dutch Jews. Arondeus was caught and executed by the Nazis soon after his arrest along with tailor Sjoerd Bakker, and writer Johan Brouwer who also were gay and 10 others. Arondeus was openly gaybefore the war and defiantly asserted his sexuality before his execution. The last wish of Arondeus is that he be given a pink shirt. He declares: “Let it be known that homosexuals are not cowards.”

1947 – U.S. Congress discontinues the military “Blue Discharges” with two new classifications: general and undesirable. The Army then changes its regulations so that gay and lesbian service members would not qualify for general discharges. The U.S. military had a long-standing policy that service members found to be homosexual or to have engaged in homosexual conduct were to be court-martialed for sodomy, imprisoned and dishonorably discharged. However, with the mobilization of troops following the United States’ entry into World War II, it became impractical to convene court-martial boards of commissioned officers so some commanders began issuing administrative discharges instead. Several waves of reform addressing the handling of homosexuals in the military resulted in a 1944 policy directive that called for homosexuals to be committed to military hospitals, examined by psychiatrists, and discharged under Regulation 615-360, section 8 as “unfit for service”. It is unknown exactly how many gay and lesbian service members were given blue discharges under this regulation, but in 1946 the Army estimated that it had issued between 49,000 and 68,000 blue discharges, with approximately 5,000 of them issued to homosexuals. The Navy’s estimates of blue-discharge homosexuals was around 4,000. Blue discharges were discontinued as of July 1, 1947, when the two new headings of general and undesirable took their place.  A general discharge was considered to be under honorable conditions—distinct from an “honorable discharge”—and an undesirable discharge was under conditions other than honorable—distinct from a “dishonorable discharge.” At the same time, the Army changed its regulations to ensure that gay and lesbian service members would not qualify for general discharges. Those found guilty of engaging in homosexual conduct still received dishonorable discharges, while those identified as homosexuals but not to have committed any homosexual acts now received undesirable discharges.

07-01-1949 – 07-17-1996   David Hogan – Born in Nokesville, Virginia. He was an American composer and musical director of CIGAP (Le Choeur Int’l Gai de Paris), a choir composed of openly gay men. During his career, Hogan had been a tenor soloist with the Washington National Cathedral (Episcopal) in Washington, D.C. Hogan was killed when TWA Flight 800 exploded off the coast of Long Island, killing all 230 passengers and crew on board.  

1950s The Decade the public learned heterosexual women wanted sex

07-01-1951 Fred Schneider – Born in Newark, New Jersey. He is an American vocalist, best known as the frontman of the rock band

Fred Schneider

 the B-52’s. He was a founding member. Schneider discussed his experience of coming out to his mother with Howard Stern on Stern’s radio broadcast on February 22, 2010. He said he came out of the closet while she was vacuuming. His mother replied with “Oh I know, Freddie” and continued vacuuming without missing a beat. Schneider said his reaction was: “It’s like, wee, OK. I guess I’ll go back outside and smoke some pot.” He is a lifelong vegetarian, and he appeared in a PETA ad campaign discouraging people from eating lobsters.

July 1, 1957

The headlines of Billboard magazine say, “Good music may be making a comeback on the bestseller charts…but rock & roll discs continue to dominate the pop market.”

The Civil Rights 60s: When the Boomers were under 30

07-01-1961 – 08-31-1997   Diana, Princess of Wales – Born in Sandringham, Norfolk, England. Diana was born into British nobility. Her engagement to Prince Charles in 1981 brought her into prominence. The royal couple had 

two sons and the marriage ended in divorce in 1996. The day after her divorce, she announced resignation from over 100 charities and retained patronages of only six, which included the National AIDS Trust. The Princess began her work with AIDS victims in the 1980s. Diana was the first British royal figure to make contact with AIDS patients. In 1987, she held hands with an AIDS patient in one of her early efforts to de-stigmatize the disease. It was in April 1987, she was responsible for opening Britain’s first-ever AIDS ward at London Middlesex Hospital. In 1989, she opened the Landmark 

Aids Centre in South London. In October 1990, Diana opened Grandma’s House, a home for young AIDS victims in Washington, D.C. She later established and led fundraising campaigns for AIDS research. Two of her closes friends were LGBT icons Gianni Versace and Elton John. Howard Berman, a Boston rabbi, and gay-rights activist said in an interview with the BBC, “Gay people particularly felt more and more protective (of her) — more and more wanting to be her champion, the way she was ours.” On August 31, 1997, the People’s Princess died in a car crash in Paris while the driver was fleeing the paparazzi.

Blogger Nina Notes: 1. the other person who survived the Diana car crash was wearing a seat belt. 2 Mother Teresa died the same weekend to less world media coverage and 3 Princess Diana was better for the world, eh.

1962 — Dr. Alan Hart (October 4, 1890 – July 1, 1962)dies. Historian Jonathan Ned Katz explains that Stanford University graduate Lucille Hart changed names and lived as a man in order to practice medicine and marry the women he loved (first, Inez Stark in 1918 and then, after their 1925 divorce, Edna Ruddick, to whom he stayed married until his death 37 years later).

July 1, 1966

Janis Joplin moved into the house owned by Big Brother & the Holding Company in Lagunitas in the San Geronimo Valley in California.

1969 – In Norton v. Macy, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit rules that the termination of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration employee for “immoral conduct” relating to his alleged homosexual conduct was unlawful.

Feminist, Gay Liberation and Lesbian Separatists: Civil Rights

1970 – The Task Force on Gay Liberation forms within the American Library Association. Now known as the GLBT Round Table, this organization is the oldest LGBT professional organization in the United States. On July 1st at the ALA Annual Conference in Detroit, MI, the Task Force on Gay Liberation meets for the first time. Israel Fishman serves as the first coordinator of the group. A social and “consciousness-raising event” was held with members of the Detroit Gay Liberation Front. Initial goals of the group included: the creation of bibliographies, revision of library classification schemes and subject headings, building and improving access to collections, and fighting job discrimination. Barbara Gittings (July 31, 1932 – February 18, 2007) puts together a list of 37 gay-positive books, magazine articles, and pamphlets – the first version of a resource that would become known as “A Gay Bibliography.”


Canada – The founding meetings of the Gay Alliance Toward Equality (GATE) are held in Vancouver. It is the first Canadian group to talk about civil rights strategies.

Austria – The Parliament rescinds laws against sex between consenting adults but adds legislation penalizing individuals who make public statements or join organizations that favor homosexuality. Although the new legislation is used to harass lesbians and gay men and, later, to prevent the import of gay and lesbian pornography, including safer sex literature, no individuals or organizations are successfully prosecuted under the laws.


UK – The United Kingdom’s first Gay Pride March draws about 2,000 gay men and lesbians to the center of London.

Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern would endorse gay rights, the first US presidential candidate in history to do so; party stalwarts would denounce him.

USA song charts  Elton John moved “Rocket Man” from 14-8 and  Elton John’s Honky Chateau moved from 37-7 after just three weeks on the Album chart.  This was the first sign that he was becoming a megastar.


 California and Washington decriminalize private consensual adult homosexual acts.

A group called Gay American Indians is launched in San Francisco.

 Mexico – Lesbian activists at the first United Nations World Conference on Women come to the attention of the world press when Pedro Gringoire attacks their efforts to make lesbian rights part of the conference agenda in an essay published in Excelsior, the country’s leading newspaper. Gringoire calls lesbianism a “pathological irregularity,” a “sexual aberration,” and a “severe illness.” Lesbian activists score gains in visibility as a result but fail to elicit an official response to their demands at the conference.

lue Boy magazine debuts. It was a gay pornographic/lifestyle magazine with pictures of men in various states of undress from 1974 to 2007. It was published by Donald N. Embinder, a former advertising representative for After Dark, an arts magazine with a substantial gay readership. Embinder first used the nom de plume Don Westbrook but soon assumed his real name on the masthead.


Indiana decriminalizes private consensual adult homosexual acts

1976 – Haaz Sleiman  (born July 1, 1976) is a Lebanese-American television and film actor. He most notably played the role of Tarek in the 2007 film The Visitor and the role of Jesus in the American TV mini-series Killing Jesus, in addition to a number of American TV series. On August 22nd, 2017 Sleiman came out as gay via a Facebook video.

He co-starred as Tarek, an undocumented Syrian immigrant in the 2007 independent film The Visitor, directed by Tom McCarthy. The film was nominated for a Screen Actors Guild Award and an Academy Award. Sleiman played gay nurse Mohammed “Mo-Mo” De La Cruz in the first season of Showtime’s series Nurse Jackie, which premiered in June 2009. On August 22, 2017, Sleiman came out as gay via a Facebook video.


In July, Raymond Barton, Bonnie Perry and Randy Vivian founded the York Rainbow Society of the Deaf. This was the first group for Queer Deaf people formed in Canada. The formation of this group is followed by L’Association des Bonnes Gens Sourds in October 1979 (Montreal).

1979 – The Susan B. Anthony dollar makes its debut.  While there were many complaints about the coin, it was mostly because it was nearly the same size as a quarter, not that it was the first U.S. coin to feature the likeness of a lesbian. Susan Brownell Anthony (February 15, 1820 – March 13, 1906) was an American social reformer and women’s rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women’s suffragemovement. Born into a Quaker family committed to social equality, she collected anti-slavery petitions at the age of 17. In 1856, she became the New York state agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society. In 1851, she met Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who became her lifelong friend and co-worker in social reform activities, primarily in the field of women’s rights. In 1852, they founded the New York Women’s State Temperance Society after Anthony was prevented from speaking at a temperanceconference because she was female. In 1863, they founded the Women’s Loyal National League, which conducted the largest petition drive in United States history up to that time, collecting nearly 400,000 signatures in support of the abolition of slavery. In 1866, they initiated the American Equal Rights Association, which campaigned for equal rights for both women and African Americans. The Nineteenth Amendment, which guaranteed the right of women to vote, was popularly known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment. Historian Lillian Faderman suggests that Susan B. Anthony may have had relationships with Anna Dickinson, Rachel Avery and Emily Gross at different times in her life. Her niece Lucy Anthony was a life partner of suffrage leader and Methodist minister Anna Howard Shaw.

The Genderfuck Apathetics vs Yuppies : Aids the new STD on the list

07-01-1980 Fortune Feimster – Born in Belmont, North Carolina. She is a lesbian comedian, writer, and actress. Fortune was a full-time writer and performer on E!’s popular late night talk show Chelsea Lately with Chelsea Handler.

07-01-1981 Orlando Cruz – Born in Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. He is a professional boxer. As an amateur, Cruz represented Puerto Rico at the 2000 Olympic Games in Australia. He made his 

Orlando Cruz

professional debut on December 15, 2000. He was undefeated until 2009. Cruz is ranked number 4 among featherweights by the World of Boxing Organization. On October 4, 2012, he became the first boxer to come out as gay while still active professionally, stating that “I have and will always be a proud Puerto Rican. I have always been and always be a proud gay man”. He was among the first class of inductees into the National Gay and Lesbian Sports Hall of Fame on August 2, 2013.

1986 – Renowned science-fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke (December 16, 1917 – March 19, 2008) comes very close to coming out in an interview published in Playboy magazine. When Clarke was asked if he’s had bisexual experiences, he responded, “Of course! Who hasn’t?” He is perhaps most famous for being co-writer of the screenplay for the 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey, widely considered to be one of the most influential films of all time.

1987 – President Reagan nominates openly homophobic Robert Bork to the U.S. Supreme Court. The nomination is rejected by the U.S. Senate for a wide-variety of reasons.


The Gay Alliance for Equality, formally established in 1973, was the first organization in Nova Scotia to fight for gay rights. In 1978 there was a large national conference in Halifax of gay and lesbian activists. About 200 participants marched through Halifax.

But in 1988, things had hardly improved. That was the year Eric Smith, a teacher in Shelburne County, was fired by the school board for having HIV. John William Tha Din was beaten to death in Camp Hill Cemetery, a gay cruising area. And the AIDS crisis further stigmatized anybody who was gay.

“For us, violence was part of the 1980s in a very big way,” says Chris Aucoin. “There was no human rights protection. You could lose your job if it was found out that you were queer. You could lose your apartment. You could be denied service in a restaurant. Or you could get beaten up. Gay bashing was common and pleas to the authorities went unheard.”

About 75 people marched through Halifax’s North End along Gottingen Street that first year. A handful wore paper bags over their heads, not out of shame, but out of the very real fear for their livelihoods and their safety.

Somebody drove his car into the crowd and laughed about it. People were yelling things from the sidewalk, or pointing their finger as if it was a gun and making shooting sounds. That may not sound like a big deal, but in a context of people getting physically attacked that is very real and threatening.

  • CBC Halifax – Pride & Prejudice 
  • 1989
  • Professional body builder Bob Paris (December 14, 1959) comes out in an interview in Ironmanmagazine. He is an American writer, actor, public speaker, civil rights activist and former professional bodybuilder. Paris was the 1983 NPCAmerican National and IFBB World Bodybuilding Champion, Mr. Universe.He was the world’s first male professional athlete, in any sport, to come out in the media while still an active competitor in his sport.The same year, Paris appeared on “The Oprah Winfrey Show” discussing marriage and being gay. Oprah asked Paris, “Bob, why not just stay in the closet?” Paris explained how “you fall in love” and that it doesn’t feel right to hide it. Paris and his former boyfriend, Rod Jackson, became symbols for gay marriage and advocated gay rights. Paris’s career ended up suffering because he came out; he claims his life was even threatened through mail and by phone. Paris lost about 80% of his bookings and endorsements for bodybuilding. Today, Paris lives with his spouse, Brian LeFurgey, on an island near VancouverBritish Columbia. Together since 1996, Bob and Brian were legally married in British Columbia after the province equalized the marriage laws in 2003.
  • “Express Yourself” from Madonna moved from 13-6, Donna Summer was at 7 with “This Time I Know It’s For Real”, Cyndi Lauper moved to #8 in an active Top 10, Natalie Cole had song #9 with “Miss You Like Crazy” and New Kids on the Block tumbled to #10 with “I’ll Be Loving You (Forever)”.

90s: Slurs Reclaimed: Act Up! Lesbian Avengers and Queer Nation

1996: The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit vacates and remands the district court in Able v. United States of America, which had ruled the military’s gay-exclusionary “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy unconstitutional.

Post 9/11 – The Shock Decade From “gay and lesbian” to “lesbigay” to “Lgbt/Lgbtq/Lgbtq2”


 Vermont’s civil union law goes into effect, granting most state-level marriage rights to registered same-sex couples.  Still not equivalent to marriages (not recognized by the federal government or by other states or in other countries), these are nonetheless the first relationships in the U.S. to receive this level of legal recognition.

Kylie Minogue was at No.1 on the UK singles chart with ‘Spinning Around’, the singers fifth No.1 was co-written by Paula Abdul, (it was originally intended for Abdul’s “comeback” album). ‘Spinning Around’ gave Minogue the honor of being one of three artists (the others being Madonna and U2) to have a No.1 in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s.


Ron Wood of the Rolling Stones was asked to paint a group portrait of regular diners at the Ivy, a West End restaurant in London.  Elton John and Neil Tennant of the Pet Shop Boys were two of the regular customers who were to be painted.

2006 – Florida Republican gubernatorial candidate Charlie Crist’s (July 24, 1956) campaign ads were carefully worded to include his support of “traditional marriage.” Media stories throughout the campaign claimed that Crist is gay. He is the U.S. Representative for Florida’s 13th congressional district. He had previously served as the 44th Governor of Florida from 2007 to 2011. In January 2014, Crist apologized for his support for the 2008 same-sex marriage ban and for the same-sex adoption ban, telling an Orlando LGBT publication that “I’m sorry I did that. It was a mistake. I was wrong. Please forgive me. On May 9, 2013, Crist announced that he supports same-sex marriage; “I most certainly support marriage equality in Florida and look forward to the day it happens here.” In both 2006 and 2008, Crist announced his support for the Federal Marriage Amendment although by 2010, he had endorsed adoption rights for gay couples.

2009, Hungary – Registered partnerships go into effect.

Unnamed Common Oppressor VSHeterosexual women VS Trans vs LGB/

2010, Denmark – Denmark allows same sex couples to apply jointly for adoptions.

07-01-2013 Same-sex marriages begin in the state of Delaware.

07-01-2014 Federal Judge John G. Heyburn II struck down Kentucky’s ban on same-sex marriage. “In America, even sincere and long-held religious beliefs do not trump the constitutional rights of those who happen to have been out-voted”. He concluded his ruling that the state’s ban violated the U.S. Constitution’s equal protection clause.

cited sources

Today in LGBT History   by Ronni Sanlo

The Lavender Effect

canada pride


people link

events link

LGBTQ2 Blogger Nina Notes:

To Each Decade it’s Age of Understanding, do not under consider differing geographies, nor the heterosexual clash of cultures – in particular – do not read backwards the words of humans now to earlier ages, to each own expression in culture and under legal conditions; and to all biology applies, regardless of what humans think is understood, rather than told, the why and when.

Sex the act of; is central to religion, war – who gets to what to who- vs which has had a no.

Understood as noting to be debated, quibbled nor negotiated.

Both in personal lives, in public and the workplaces, which were gender divided owing to sexual roles, across cultures and times.


music and movie information from my previous blog

Our Daily Elvis

where I note, The Last Elvis Secret given what the Memphis Mafia wrote about Presley Parties, the only thing not officially and rarely luridly written about was the balance of probability Elvis Presley was bisexual, and was described by heterosexual men as being so attractive as to raise a question – including Jerry Reed, writer and performer. And given Larry Geller’s descriptions of being accused by other Memphis Mafia members of being gay with Elvis during the private hair cut sessions -rather makes it seem the Memphis Mafia were jealous, and with Larry having to point out that were they admitting Elvis was bisexual?

As if Geller, a Hollywood hairdress would have a problem and his challenge back to those accusers was were they admitting Elvis was bisexual with the accusation? the last Elvis secret, along with the suicide note left in 1977, all swore to not reveal.

And each Memphis Mafia Member book was all about the orgies and parties Elvis made them attend, as if that was not why they were his friends acquired over time, to Red West, who saved Elvis from high school bathroom beatings and haircuts.

from my original blog:

Books: Death of Elvis

Books: Best and Worst

Books: Elvis My Best Man by George Klein and Genuine Elvis by Ronnie McDowel

Book: Baby Let’s Play House – Alanna Nash

see also:

Elvis and Lenny Bruce


With the new theatric Biopic that will reveal Elvis’ self harm in both diet and injuries as a pretense to get cancer level drugs from doctors and dentists and anyone who would administer anything, including an induced week long coma for weight loss in Vegas, known to any Elvis fan who read:

the Darkest Elvis Secret was said by his StepMom on National USA tv. That one can be famous and rich and be depressed, connects to why western nations have the highest suicide rates: direct/obvious and passive. In 2017 it was revealed Elvis Presley left a suicide note, and that was why the life insurance policy was never cashed.

Was There A Dark Side to Elvis and Gladys?

It is important to note that the majority of sexual predators and murderers are males who victimize: pick the most inclusive or the most diverse statement of victim categories:

A) women and other men

B) men and women

C) heterosexual men, heterosexual women and LGBTQ2

D) heterosexual men, heterosexual women, gay/bisexual men, bisexual women, lesbians and NB/Transpersons

Extra Credit:

now factor in how to phrase that sentence and include 1 ethnicity 2 disability – physical of body and/or of the brain and persons without religion/spirituality

LGBTQ2 Blogger Nina Notes:

Most of the above is copied from one of the sites cited as sources in the daily post and as linked at the end of every post.

the history of nonheterosexuals and different historical eras views are such that there is a there is a danger to apply current decadish of time, in 2021 to past decades and centuries; particularly without application of complete history.

There is a difference between adopting male attire in the era when clothing was spelled out in law, and lesbians who passed in public, differ from those who only change clothing for personal sexual gratification, in private “cross dressors” in the language of this same era.

Laws regarding clothing exist in many nations, including capitol punishment, this is why sexual orientation is a demographic, That heterosexual women continue to be denied reproductive rights, education and professions, even where won at court; that women are a demographic. That male and female persons who are ethnically different from the majority population and with differing experiences being merged into colour blind visible minorities are differing demographics.

the farther back in time the given individual is, and why on this blog, there is a under theme of Elvis Presley, as the most prominent modern era person of the 1900s Current Era; who was photographed almost every day of his adult life., and who’s number of days on this planet have resulted in his being one of the most recognizable individuals across all cultures on the planet, which in 1950s was 1 billion people, and by his death almost 4 billion, to the 8 billion currently existing on earth.


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